تغییر رویکردهای پارادیپلماسی در دورانِ پساکرونا با تاکید بر صنعتِ غذای حلال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای تخصصی علوم سیاسی (اندیشه سیاسی)، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد ، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی روابط بین الملل(گرایش دیپلماسی سلامت ) دانشگاه آزاد اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

همه‌گیری ویروسِ کووید-19، آن‌چنان اثراتِ عمیقی بر صحنۀ سیاست و عرصۀ روابط بین‌المللی داشته است که سخن از تقسیم تاریخ به دو دوره پیشا/پساکرونا به میان آمده است. از آن‌جا که با شیوع ویروس کرونا،‌ پاکیزگی و کیفیت غذا اهمیت دوچندان یافته، توجه جدی به صنعتِ غذای حلال منطقی و قابل قبول است. با این‌که هر روز تبعات و پیامدهای این ویروس، بر جنبه‌های مختلف زندگی اجتماعی انسان‌ها آشکار می‌شود و دستگاه‌ها و نهادهای گوناگون می‌کوشند راهی برای کاهش آلام و رنج‌های ناشی از ویروس کرونا بیایند، تأکید بر غذای حلال، می‌تواند به‌عنوان یک راهکار پیشگیرانه مطرح شود. باتوجه به اهمیت هویت‌های خرد در جریان افزایش روند جهانی شدن، می‌توان از مفهوم پارادیپلماسی که برای اشاره به این موجودیت‌های سیاسی فروملی ابداع شده، ‌بهره گرفت. برهمین اساس، این پژوهش بر پایه پرسش از چگونگی تحول رویکردهای پارادیپلماسی در نتیجه گسترش کروناویروس ساخت‌یافته است و می‌کوشد بر جایگاه صنعت غذای حلال به‌عنوان راه‌حلی برای پیشگیری و هم‌چنین فرصتِ مناسبی برای تبلیغ و اشاعه فرهنگ غذای حلال، تأکید کند. رویکرد نظری این نوشتار سازه‌انگاری است که مطابق با آن، نه ‌تنها ساختار و کارگزار بلکه گروه‌های کوچک و حاشیه‌ای نیز می‌توانند بر مناسبات موجود در عرصه بین‌المللی اثرگذار باشند. در این رهیافت، دولت‌ها به مثابۀ موجودات اجتماعی هستند که رفتارشان از قواعد، هنجارها، نهادها و هویت‌ها مشتق شده است. پرسش از تحول رویکردهای پارادیپلماسی در دورانِ پساکرونا و جایگاه صنعتِ غذای حلال بر اساس رویکرد سازه‌انگارانه، از نقاطِ تمرکز این نوشتار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Changing paradigmatic approaches in the post-Corona period With an emphasis on the halal food industry

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohadese jazaei 1
  • elham sabbagh 2
1 PhD, political science (political thoughts), ferdowsi University,mashhad,Iran.
2 ABD in International Relations; BSc,Midwifery, Pregnant Health , Azad University Isfahan Khorasgan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The spread of the Covide-19 virus has had such a profound effect on politics and international relations that there has been talk of dividing history into pre and post-Corona periods. With the spread of coronavirus, the cleanliness and quality of food is now important more than ever, and thus, serious attention to the halal food industry is logical and acceptable. Although the consequences of this virus are becoming more apparent on various aspects of human social life and many institutions are trying to find a way to reduce the pain and suffering caused by the coronavirus, emphasizing halal food can be considered as a preventive measure. Given the importance of micro-identities in the process of increasing globalization, the concept of paradiplomacy can be used to refer to these subnational political entities. Accordingly, this study is based on the question of how paradiplomatic approaches evolved as a result of the spread of coronavirus and tries to emphasize the position of the halal food industry as a solution to prevent and also a good opportunity to promote and spread halal food culture. The theoretical approach of this paper is a constructivism according to which, not only structures and agents but also small groups can influence the existing relations in the international arena. In this approach, states are as social beings whose behavior is derived from rules, norms, institutions and identities. The question of the evolution of paradiplomatic approaches in the post-Corona era and the position of the halal food industry, based on the constructivist approach, is one of the focal points of this paper.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Covide-19
  • Paradiplomacy
  • constructive
  • Halal Industry
  • Postcrona
[1]. walt, Stephan. (2020). foreign policy, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/23/.
[2]. Hadian N. "Structuralism: From International Relations to Foreign Policy". Foreign Policy Quarterly, Question1382; 17 (4): 901-921. [In Persian]
[3]. Smith W, and others. World Politics Issues, translated by Seyed Kamal Sarvarian: Institute for Strategic Studies, Tehran.1381. [In Persian]
[4]. Seifzadeh SH. (1384). Various theories and theories in international relations have become individual and collective. Office of Political Studies and International Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Tehran. 1384. [In Persian]
[5]. Went, Alexander (1386). Social Theory of International Politics, translated by Homeira Moshirzadeh, Tehran, Office of Political and International Studies. [In Persian]
[6]. Moshirzadeh H. Transformation in theories of international relations. Tehran, Samat. 1385.
[7]. Moshirzadeh H. Theoretical foundations of foreign policy, Tehran, Samat. 1396. [In Persian]
 [8]. Kolaei E, Shekarchi H, Ahmadina M.  "US Cyber ​​Diplomacy (Case Study of the Republic of Azerbaijan)". Central Asia and Caucasus Quarterly,2013; 82: 81-102. [In Persian]
[9]. Mobini Keshe Z, Tabatabai YS. "Media Diplomacy in the Foreign Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran. A Case Study of the Eleventh Government", Quarterly Journal of Political Research, 1393; 9: 102-139. [In Persian]
[10]. Shafaei M (1386). "Economic diplomacy, a new tool of foreign policy in the age of globalization", Journal of Law and Political Science, 1386; 6: 39-60. [In Persian]
[11]. Hassankhani M. "Cultural diplomacy and its place in the foreign policy of countries", Knowledge Quarterly, 1384; 1(2): 135-148. [In Persian]
[12]. Jamali Nejad M. Urban Diplomacy. Arma Publishing, Isfahan, 1392. [In Persian]
[13]. Momeni MR, Rahimi A, Gheibizadeh N. "Paradiplomacy and its Applications in Border Cities: A Case Study of West Azerbaijan". Quarterly Journal of International Relations Research, 1395; 1( 21): 53-53. [In Persian]
[14]. Schult JE. Globalization of Politics: International Relations in the New Age, Compiled by: Steve Smith and John Bliss, Tehran, Abrar Contemporary Cultural Institute, Tehran. 1383. [In Persian]
[15]. Dehshiri MR. "Paradiplomacy in the Global Age: Becoming a Case Study of Urban Diplomacy", Quarterly Journal of Strategic Studies in Public Policy, 1395; 4 (13): 1-14. [In Persian]
[16]. Furedi F. ''A Disaster without Precedent''. 2020; Spiked-Online, 20 March. https://www.spiked-online.com/2020/03/20/a-disaster-without-precedent/.
 [17]. Enloe C. ''COVID-19: “Waging War” Against a Virus is NOT What We Need to Be Doing''. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), 23March. https://www.wilpf.org/covid-19-waging-war-against-a-virus-is-not-what-we-need-to-be doing/?fbclid=IwAR1uSe7SwGV6MfNriXWNwz4mXHy7cf-Eenz9_hKVaFLLuP7jIaBr2rfvCJI. 2020.
[19]. Sotiris P. ''Against Agamben: Is a Democratic Biopolitics Possible''? Critical Legal Thinking, 14 March. https://criticallegalthinking.com/2020/03/14/against-agamben-is-a-democratic-biopolitics-possible/. 2020.
[20]. Probst M. ''Coronavirus won't kill globalization'', available in:  https://time.com/5838751/globalization-coronavirus/.2020.
[21]. Prasidya  Y. Halal food rising in popularity amid COVID-19 pandemic, reports indicate, availibale in: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/05/08/halal-food-rising-in-popularity-amid-covid-19-pandemic-reports-indicate.html.2020.
[22]. The Holy Quran
[23]. Parastandeh R. "Effects of Halal and Haram Products on Physical and Mental Health", Proceedings of the Halal Food Conference, International Conference on Halal Food. 1397. [In Persian]
[24]. Rezaei G. (1398). "Factors Affecting the Acceptance of Halal Food among Non-Muslims", Bi-Quarterly Journal of Halal Research, Second Year, Second Issue,1398; 5-21. [In Persian]
[25].  Mohammadi, M,  Farokhi R. (1391). "The standard of halal food and its jurisprudential and ethical considerations", Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Industry, Year 7, 1391; 5: 571-587. [In Persian]
[26]. sanatghaza.comhttp://sanatghaza.com
[27]. Yunus Muhammad, Baba the global halal industry: an overview, Africa Islamic Economic foundation, Tamale, Ghana. 2017.
[28]. Technavio research, (2020). ''Pre & Post COVID-19 market Estimates-Halal food market'', available in: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200424005425/en/Pre-Post-COVID-19-Market-Estimates-Halal-Food-Market.
[29]. Amalia Kung-Jeng W, Arie Indra G. (2020). ''Covid-19: Can Halal Food Lessen the Risks of the Next Similar Outbreak?'' International journal of applied business research, V. 2, N. 2, PP. 86–95.