عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objective: Alcoholic drinks are interested in societies since long time ago. Other than its psychological effects in drinkers, several researches have been done about ethanol side-effects. In this study, we investigate different aspects of ethanol consumption by oral intake.
Results: Ethanol interferes in active transport of nutrients on the brush border. With regard to macronutrients, it disturbs the normal hydrolysis in the intestine. Although, lower absorption of macronutrients in the small intestine is compensated by their increased absorption in the lower gastrointestinal tract. It has been reported that ethanol intake at lower doses may protect the heart, but its prolonged intake could damage surface of villi, make lesions in the intestine, induce diarrhea, and stimulate growth of intestinal pathogens (known as endotoxemia). Chronic alcohol consumption induces inflammation and oxidative stress in drinkers, which affect the liver as the main metabolizing organ followed by brain. Reduced supply of antioxidants in drinkers and increased inflammation after alcohol intake makes the body susceptible to further infections.
Conclusion: Despite the positive effect of ethanol in prevention of cardiovascular diseases at low doses, its negative impacts on the other organs are not deniable. Importantly, no sale level has been introduced for ethanol oral intake. Therefore, the scientists recommend to avoid its drinking every time.