عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objective: The present study as a new approach is chasing the application of microbial and plant-based proteins as a replacement with animal proteins to increase the halal value of food products. Due to changes in food production and also awareness increases of consumers about the food composition and also due to increase in Muslim population worldwide, application of plant and microbial proteins can be a good and beneficial approach in producing foods labeled with halal. On the other side, plant proteins have higher under cultivation grounds while the cost of production is lower than microbial origins. Thus, plant proteins are preferred to be used in food formulations. The problem concerning plant proteins is their grassy and bean-like odor and flavor. Further, these proteins have weaker functional properties (emulsifying, emulsion stability, foamability, and foam stability) in comparison with animal proteins. Thereby, it is suggested to be modified with physical, chemical, and enzymatic methods.
Results: Modification of protein structures by chemical and enzymatic methods is more effective and can lead to the amelioration of functional attributes. Meanwhile, meat flavor analog is established in these proteins after enzymatic-chemical changes. Hydrolyzing and cross-linking enzymes are suggested for enzymatic modification. Hydrolyzing enzymes such as Alcalase and Flavourzyme can produce bioactive peptides with lower molecular weight and this can reduce the grassy and beany flavor of respective proteins. Cross-linking enzyme (Transglutaminase) can reinforce of functional properties of produced peptides. Chemical modification via the Maillard reaction can produce meaty volatile compounds.
Conclusion: Therefore, with modification of plant proteins especially glycated peptides can produce a savory umami taste which can be substituted with animal proteins. Eventually, some food formulations would be promoted that have the halal label, high health effect properties with low production cost, and high-added value.